Simulators and training workstations

SK-1 Pluton – a comprehensive simulator for fire training of squads of ROSOMAK armoured personal carriers

The SK-1P simulator for fire training of squads of ROSOMAK armoured personal carriers was developed by OBRUM in collaboration with research and development organizations and training centres (Training Centre for Land Troops (CSWL) in Poznań, Military University of Land Forces WSOWL) and Military University of Technology (WAT).
The experience, remarks and feedback from users of the previous users of the system (CSWL in Poznań), support in implementation of training simulators for teaching (WSOWL – Institute of Commanding) as well as support in the field of modern IT technologies and computer simulations (WAT – Faculty of Cybernetics), combined with own studies undertaken by the Office of Simulators at OBRUM, have led to construction of a modern system dedicated for comprehensive training of crews conveyed in ROSOMAK armoured personal carriers. Modular structure of the simulator enable various teaching scenarios, starting from trainings for individual soldiers, via crew teams (of a turret or an entire vehicle) up to platoons of crews. The SK-1P system was developed with the aim to run trainings related to operation and maintenance of the vehicle, cooperation between crew members and coordination between vehicle crew within a group of APC vehicles. The software developed for trainings enables networked trainings with the use of HLA and DIS interfaces.

SKMK – Comprehensive Simulator of Driver’s Module
The driver’s module SKMK is an independent training device designed to train drivers of KTO Rosomak vehicles. It can be used to run multiple training scenarios, from the basic training up to training of cooperation with a crew of the combat compartment. The module composition is customized and depends on the manner how the simulator is used. The SKMK system was designed in the way that enables installation of original components from the driver’s compartment together with additional systems that improve imitation quality for actual operating conditions. For the needs of advanced trainings for drivers of Rosomak vehicles, the module can be supplemented with components that imitate operation of the suspension system and the steering system of the vehicle (a moving platforms with 6 degrees of freedom, generators of vibrations and a system for imitation of the steering wheel movements). In addition, the driver’s module can be supplemented with an original hatch together with optical equipment for field observation, interconnected with the imaging system designed to present pictures from a night-vision device or the hatch can be left opened to simulate driving with a hatch open. The design properties of the module enable seamless integration with any combat module, both in the local network of the training centre and remote integration via network interfaces.

SKMB – Comprehensive Simulator of Combat Module
The module SKMB is an module of the training system for KTO Rosomak vehicles and dedicated to train crews of the HITFIST-30P turrets. The combat module is furnished with all components that are necessary for the teaching process, including imitators of turret systems (the interface to the fire control system (SKO), the system of active defence, power supply and control systems of the turret, control of manual firing). The way how original equipment of the turret is imitated in the training workstation is customizable to the level specified by the system user. The standard configuration of the system allows it operation as an independent training device and makes it possible to run trainings within the structure of a more extensive training system. The combat module can be used for basic trainings dedicated to handling the turret compartment equipment (training simulator of a turret) as well as to drill collaboration between the vehicle commander and the gun operator or even as a component of a large simulation network, for instance SK-1 Pluton.

SKMI – Comprehensive Simulator of Instructor’s Module
A single SKMI set of equipment makes it possible to arrange interconnections with four complete training modules of the SKM series (training modules for drivers and/or combat training modules). The training workstation is operated by two persons – an instructor and an operator. The operator uses his workstation to control the simulation system and the course of the training itself. His control panel can be used to remotely activate or deactivate individual modules, make modifications on the simulated battlefield and trigger ‘artificial’ defects of equipment as well as other incidents that may affect the course of trainings. The operator’s interface can also be used for comprehensive troubleshooting of the system, both its hardware and software components. On the other hand, the workstation dedicated to an instructor is used to check current status of the vehicle components and systems in the real time mode. The entire training module is supplemented with a network of CCTV cameras designed to monitor actions of trainees and combined with a tool for voice communication. The whole training can be recorded and then replayed to analyse all activities.

High complexity of the SK-1P simulator entailed the need to apply a series of innovative solutions on the level of the system architecture. The event-controlled approach to the software development made it possible to design a very flexible system that can be modified according to needs of individual customers. The final solution enables unified and transparent integration of nearly all output devices. The entire software system runs on a sophisticated platform that manages the lifetime of component application and guarantees the required level of stability and reliability.

Mission editor
The battlefield editor embedded into the system enables real-time monitoring of involved troops and individual trainees, since their activities are on-line displayed on a detailed tactic map. The map can be discretely zoomed in and out or moved up and down. The interface of a Real Time Editor (RTE) makes it possible to add, remove or modify troops involved in the training. All changes are made ‘in fly’ and have immediate effect onto the game course, therefore the system operator can also actively participate in the game. The solutions incorporated into the system enable the system operator to interfere the training, for instance dynamically increase or decrease the degree of the training difficulty, modify the game scenario or change the battlefield parameters.

Library of objects
Owing to an extensive library of objects comprising several thousands of items like wheeled or tracked vehicles, drones, civilians, NATO and OPFOR soldiers, mines, IED traps, navy units (including submarines) and aircrafts, the system enables creation of really widespread battlefields adapted to needs of specific training courses.

The strict breakdown of the SK-1 Pluton system into software modules enables quick scaling of the system according to the hardware architecture available for trainings. It means that no matter how large the group of trainees can be, the software is suitable for training of an individual driver or an entire platoon squad. The way how individual physical modules (SKMB, SKMK) of the simulator are arranged and used is defined by the system user. Another interesting advantage of the system is the option to run training courses within an non-uniform architecture, where behavior of a single vehicle involved in simulation can be easily changed by simple substitution of a software module.

Each module of the simulator is provided with DIS and HLA interfaces in line with the STANAG 46003 standard. Implementation of such a communication standard enables integration of the SK-1P system with other training simulators and workstationes in spite of their physical location. Network interfaces incorporated into the simulator software allow development of networked games or joining to training launched by other NATO states. Application of the aforementioned technologies make it possible to compile sophisticated training scenarios that can be used for long time in collaboration with other simulation environments during a single training. Interoperability of the system developed by OBRUM enables also integration of real hardware simulators and virtual solutions within a single training scenario. The HLA and DIS interfaces allow interconnections between the SK-1 Pluton simulator and a simulation systems designed to train crews of Leopard 2A4/2PL tanks , i.e. ASPT and AGPT devices, hardware simulators that are used by Polish Army, for instance JCATS, and any other teaching and training systems that support the HLA or DIS standard.

The imaging system is based on a modern and widely used (tactic trainings, Serious Games) software engine Virtual Battle-Space, revisions 2 or 3. The solution applied to the system enables presentation high resolution images on displays of any size. Owing to implementation of cutting edge solution from the area of computer hardware, the imaging system is able to generate detailed graphics or videos as well as dynamic combat scenes on more than fifty visual paths.