Simulators and training workstations

T-72/PT-91 Crew training systems

T-72/PT-91 Crew training system operational and maintenance stand
The stand is designed for training of the tank crew and maintenance staff in the scope of design and operation of T-72/PT-91 tank. It enables to make acquaintance of trainee with arrangement of particular assemblies, devices and instruments in the tank and their mutual connections as well as principle of operation and maintenance. Moreover, the practical training of technical service, daily and periodical is possible as well as methods of repairing the typical damages and failures.

The possibilities to carry out of training in the scope of particular devices operation are provided as follows:

• radio station and intercom,
• instruments of mass destroying weapon system (except of overpressure generation inside the tank) and fire fighting system,
• lighting and signalling instruments,
• day and night observational instruments,
• TPDK-1 range finder sight,
• loading automaton operation,
• armament stabiliser operation.

The general training stand is composed of:

• open-work tank hull,
• open-work turret with gun mock-up,
• set of parts and assemblies of T-72/PT-91 tank mounted inside and outside the hull and turret Identical to battle tank.
• Additionally the stand is equipped with:
• imitator of breach wedge contactor,
• loading cycles counter,
• recoil imitator,
• stabilised rectifier power supply 24V/250A
• In the order to increase visibility of mechanisms, the repeatedly elements are not mounted into the stand.
• Most of mechanisms mounted into the stand enable demonstration of their operation.


• length -7970 mm
• width – 3460 mm
• height -2300 mm

Mass – 16,8 Mg
Power supply – 24V/250A


T-72/PT-91 crew training system automatic loader

The stand is designed for practical training of design, operation principle and use of T-72/PT-91 tank gun loader. Especially the stand serves to built up the correct custom necessary to operate the loader, as well as getting knowledge of works connected with everyday and periodical loader maintenance during tank service life.

The stand enables for:

• gun loading from the rotary conveyor in the automatic, semiautomatic cycles and manual,
• hand gun loading from a stillage located on the floor of rotary conveyor,
• loading and unloading of rotary conveyor in the semiautomatic cycles and manual,
Removal of missile loaded and cartridge mock-up from the gun barrel mock-up is performed manually by means of special drift.
The stand composes a set of fully useable loader assemblies applied in the T-72/PT-91 tank.

Additionally the stand is equipped with:

• imitator of loading cycles,
• cases container,
• loading cycles counter,
• blockage of gun elevator mechanism.
The devices mentioned are mounted into open-worked tank turret mock-up with built-in movable gun mock-up identically to a battle tank. The whole is located on the special open-worked trestle imitating the space inside battle compartment of the tank hull.
The open-work trestle and turret design enables observation of the all assemblies being the component parts of the loader taking into consideration the place of mounting and operation principle.
The stand is power supplied by means of stabilised DC power supply of 24V/100A.


• length -6775 mm
• width – 2500 mm
• height -2400 mm

Mass – 3 Mg
Power supply – 24V/1050A

T-72/PT-91 crew training system – Driver’s stand

The stand is designed for the practical training of mechanic-driver in the scope of design and operation principle of T-72/PT-91 tank driving system. The stand enables to acquaint the trainee with arrangement, design of units and operation principle of steering and lubrication systems. On the training stand the practical works concerning everyday and periodical maintenance of steering and lubrication systems can be performed.

Particularly the stand allows to show steering of:
• gearbox engage,
• gearbox shifting,
• braking,
• fuel supply system (injection pump control)
• shutters,
• opening and closing the mechanic-driver hatch and emergency hatch.
The stand consists of assemblies as follows:
• two – part, open-work hull with built-in wheels of all direction moving,
• equipment the mechanic-driver compartment with steering elements of gearboxes, brakes, fuel supply, shutters
• mechanic-driver seat,
• control-measurement instruments board,
• taking-out panel with signalling lamp,
• electric equipment units (driver fan, ceiling lamp),
• pneumatic equipment units (manometer, cylinders, starting valve),
• additional equipment (headset, container for TNPO-168W, tank for water),
• mechanic-driver hatch and emergency hatch,
• observational instruments,
• gearbox hydraulic lubrication system with oil tank,
• valve devices,
• oil filter of pumping out main line,
• oil pressing pump,
• two oil pumps pumping out the oil from gearboxes and intermediate gearboxes,
• hydrocyclon,
• oil preliminary pumping pump,
• manometer sensors,
• connecting conduits,
• gearbox suction filter,
• gearbox shafts shield,
• deaerator (deaerating filter),
• distribution valve,
• intermediate gearbox mock-up,
• gearbox cover mock-up


• length – 6370 mm
• width – 2150 mm
• height – 1435 mm

Mass – 2,35 Mg

T-72/PT-91 crew training system – NBC protection stand

The stand is designed for practical training of tank’s crew in the scope of correct using, design and operation of protection system against mass destruction weapon used in the T-72/PT-91 tank.

It allows demonstration of full operation cycle, teaching the control-service activities of protection system as well as teaching the localisation and removal of most often happen failures.

Especially the stand enables:
• checking the function ability of 3EC11-3 mechanisms control system (by means of checking push button )
• checking the operation ability of GO-27 instrument for contamination recognition and 3EC11-3 system by means of PK11-2 control instrument,
• emergency operation of protection system,
• shifting the system execution elements to start position,
• simulation of protection system failures from the instructor panel.

The stand consists of three principal functional blocks connected by electric cables:
1. Main stand,
2. Instructor (lecturer) board,
3. Rectifier power supply.

The main stand makes the bracket about pattern the left side of T-72/PT-91 tank hull on which all systems, instruments and operation mechanisms of protection system are mounted.

Mentioned above are arranged in the way similar to T-72/PT-91 tank arrangement.

The deviation from a principle is location of mechanic-driver control instruments board mock-up and right and left turret board in the “front” part of the stand.
The instructor board is equipped with signalling lamp and switches enable simulation of failures in the electric devices and fuses. The results of failures simulated are visible in the main stand.

The power supply is connected to the 3x380V network and makes power supply source of the main stand and instructor board. It is made on the base of typical BSG 24V/100A diode power supply.

Basic stand

• length – 2560 mm
• width – 1150 mm
• height – 1600 mm
Mass – 495 kg

Instructor Panel

• length – 800 mm
• width – 590 mm
• height – 825 mm
Mass – 32 kg

T-72/PT-91 crew training system – Engine lubrication stand

The stand is designed for practical training of T-72/PT-91 tank crew in the scope of design and operation principle of engine lubrication system. Visually the stand pattern the fragment of engine lubrication system arranged in the similar way like in the real arrangement in the T-72/PT-91 tank.

The set of the stand comprises the principal elements as follows:
• centrifugal oil filter,
• oil filter,
• main oil tank with cross sections,
• preliminary pressure pump,
• cover of central oil supply,
• oil pressure sensor,
• connecting pipes.
The elements mentioned are mounted on the special designed trestle, equipped with wheels enables relocation of the stand.

• length – 1150 mm
• width – 1150 mm
• height – 1500 mm
Mass – 170 kg

T-72/PT-91 crew training system – Fuel system

The stand is designed for practical training of tank’s crew in the scope of the design and operation principle of T-72/PT-91 tank’s fuel system.
The fuel system stand of T-72/PT-91 tank is designed and made in such a way that makes mock-up of fuel system of the base vehicle.
The particular elements of the set are fitted on the left front fuel tank mock-up.

The set of the stand comprises principal elements as follows:

• centrifugal fuel pump,
• stub pipe for fuel pumping out from the tanks by means of centrifugal pump,
• manual fuel pump,
• deaeration valve,
• preliminary cleaning fuel filter,
• distribution fuel cock.
The mock-up of the left front fuel tank is equipped with the sensor of fuel level measurement instrument. The whole is mounted on the rotary trestle in the position identical to position in the T-72/PT-91 tank. The training stand is designed for setting on the table and operation in the stationary rooms (lecture rooms) in the optional climate conditions.

• length – 750 mm
• width – 560 mm
• height – 780 mm
Mass – 28 kg

T-72/PT-91 crew training system – Engine fuel supply stand

The stand of fuel supply system is designed for training of T-72/PT-91 tank crews in the scope of design and operation principle of engine fuel supply and thermal smoke generation apparatuses (TAD).

The stand consists of elements as follows:
• frame (trestle),
• BNC-1 centrifugal pump,
• stud pipe for fuel pumping out from the tanks by means of BNC-1 centrifugal pump,
• RNM-1 manual fuel pump,
• deaeration valve,
• preliminary cleaning fuel filter,
• distribution fuel cock,
• fuel supply pump AGR-896-Cz,
• fuel cleaning fine filter,
• floating valve,
• cock for outside fuel tank connection,
• electromagnetic valve of TAD,
• injector of TAD,
• pipe connections of TAD.
Additionally the stand is equipped with :
• fuel level measurement sensor in the front left tank,
• drainage valve of the left front tank,
• NK-12 injection pump mock-up with one injector,
• equalising tank mock-up.

• length – 1450 mm
• width – 1150 mm
• height – 1450 mm
Mass – 120 kg

T-72/PT-91 crew training system – Field fire training stand

The stand is designed for practical firing training of T-72/PT-91 tank’s crew at the active participation of instructor involved.

It enables for getting knowledge about devices and mechanisms arrangement in the tank used in the aiming and firing processes as well as training of:
• battle field observation,
• definition of the distance to the target,
• firing from the gun.

The training stand comprises:
• specific stand SJ-08 pattern the tank,
• instructor stand with connecting cables,
• stabilised rectifying power supply 24V/250A,
• cradle device.

The main stand is placed on the cradle device which simulates various tank movement state, that means parking, running, short stoppage.

Such a joining of stand units enables to perform firing (shooting) training in the conditions similar to reality.

The instructor stand enables to maintain the communication of trained crew with instructor and also to loud the talks to listeners participated. It allows to control the activities of trainee and measurement and registration of realisation time of ordered given.

The stand power supply is the typical BAB stabilised rectifying power supply 24V/250A.

Basic stand

• length – 8500 mm
• width – 5410 mm
• height – 2300 mm

Instructor Panel

• length – 815 mm
• width – 855 mm
• height – 1325 mm
Mass – 12,2 kg
It makes together with battery built in the main stand power supply .

T-72/PT-91 crew training system – Driver’s training system

The SJ-09A vehicle is designed for T-72/PT-91 tank’s mechanic – driver training in the scope of:
• acquiring the skills of vehicle driving, correct using the steering mechanisms and building up a habit of current observation of control instruments
• design and operation principle of mechanisms and assemblies of engine, power transmission, suspension, running etc. systems,
• control instruments, technical service, preservation.
Crew may consist of four persons:
• instructor and two trainees, taking seats in a cabin
• third trainee, taking seat in a chassis.

The vehicle consists of two main units:
• tank chassis,
• cabin with gun barrel mock-up.
The cabin is an integrated assembly (module type) mounted in the place of turret with bearing. Light construction, equipped with glass window ensures tightness protecting the crew against atmospheric influences.

For the correct crew training performance and vehicle operation the cabin is equipped with:
1. Doubled steering system for instructor which enables:
• correction of mechanic – driver activity in steering of turning,
• clutch disengage,
• vehicle braking.
2. Control-measurement instruments board of instructor for control of vehicle operation and introduction of changes on the mechanic-driver instrument board in the scope of:
• cooling liquid temperature in the engine cooling system,
• oil pressure decrease in the engine lubrication system,
• oil pressure decrease in the gearboxes,
• lack of fuel,
• position of gun barrel,
3. Communication means,
4. Window glass cleaning system, observational instruments (day and night for instructor).